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grammaire anglaise : verbes à particule

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phrasal verbs

Certains verbes sont composés par deux partis: un verbe et un particule :

  • grow + up
    >> The children are growing up.

dans la langue anglaise, cela change souvent la signification du verbe :

  • take + after
    >> She takes after her mother
    = She looks like her mother, or She behaves like her mother.
  • count + on
    >> I know I can count on you
    = I know I can trust you, or I know I can believe you.

Une partie de ce genre de verbes transitifs se présentent toujours sous une même forme :

N (sujet) + V + p + N (objet)

[Note: N = noun; V = verb; p = particle]

N (Sujet) Verbe Particule N (Objet)
She
I
My father
takes
can count
comes
after
on
from
her mother
you
Madrid

Les autres dont la forme varient selon les différentes situation s’appellent en anglais » phrasal verbs » ,qui ont deux modèles différents :

N + V + N + p

N (Subject) Verb (N) Object Particle
She
He
We
gave
knocked
will be leaving
the money
the glass
our friends and neighbours
back
over
behind

•  N (subject) + V + p + N (object)

N (Subject) Verb Particle N (Object)
She
He
We
gave
knocked
will be leaving
back
over
behind
the money
the glass
our friends and neighbours

Quand le COD est un pronom personnel , on utilise toujours ce modèle:

N + V +N + p:

  • She gave back it
    >> She gave it back
  • He knocked over it
    >> knocked it over
  • We will be leaving behind them
    >> We will be leaving them behind

. Common verbs with their most frequent particles are:

bring: about, along, back, forward, in, off, out, round, up
buy: out, up
call: off, up
carry: off, out
cut: back, down, off, out, up
give: away, back, off
hand: back, down, in, on out, over, round
knock: down, out, over
leave: behind, out
let: down, in, off, out
pass: down, over, round
point: out
push: about, around, over
put: across, away, down, forward, off, on, out, through, together, up
read: out
set: apart, aside, back, down
shut: away, in, off, out
take: apart, away, back, down, in, on, up, over
think: over, through, up
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