Grammaire anglaise: l'article "THE "

Grammaire anglaise: l'article "THE "

L’article défini the est le mot le plus utilisé dans la langue anglaise.
On l’emploie devant un nom quand on croit que l’auditeur sait exactement ce à quoi on faire référence.
• parceque c’est le seul !
The Pope is visiting Russia.
The moon
is very bright tonight.
The Shah of Iran
was deposed in 1979.
C’est pourquoi qu’on l’utilise avec le superlatif :
He is the tallest boy in the class.
It is the oldest building in the town

We live in a small village next to the church. = (the church in our village)
Dad, can I borrow the car? = (the car that belongs to our family)
When we stayed at my grandmother’s house we went to the beach every day. = (the beach near my grandmother’s house)
Look at the boy in the blue shirt over there. = (the boy I am pointing at)

• Ou parce qu’on a déjà mentionné l’objet.
A woman who fell 10 metres from High Peak was lifted to safety by a helicopter. The woman fell while climbing.
The rescue is the latest in a series of incidents on High Peak. In January last year two men walking on the peak were killed in a fall.

on utilise “the” également  :
• pour dire quelque chose qui concerne un ensemble de ce genre:
The wolf is not really a dangerous animal (= Wolves are not really dangerous animals)
The kangaroo is found only in Australia (= Kangaroos are found only in Australia)
The heart pumps blood around the body. (= Hearts pump blood around bodies)

musical instruments:
Joe plays the piano really well.(= George can play any piano)
She is learning the guitar.(= She is learning to play any guitar)

systeme ou service:
How long does it take on the train.
I heard it on the radio.
You should tell the police.

devant adjectifs comme rich, poor, elderly, unemployed pour désigner un groupe de personnes:
Life can be very hard for the poor.
I think the rich should pay more taxes.
She works for a group to help the disabled.

les noms propres :

on n’emplois normalement pas l’article défini devant les noms propres.
William Shakespeare wrote Hamlet.
Paris is the capital of France.
Iran is in Asia.

Mais on le met devant :
les pays dont le nom comprend des mots comme kingdom, states ou republic:
the United Kingdom; the kingdom of Nepal; the United States; the People’s Republic of China.
les pays qui ont un nom avec le pluriel :
the Netherlands; the Philippines
les caractères géographiques features, comme les chaîne de montagnes, groupes d’îles, rivières, mers, océans et canals:
the Himalayas; the Canaries; the Atlantic; the Atlantic Ocean; the Amazon; the Panama Canal.
The Times; The Washington Post
l’architecture ou œuvre d’art très connu:
the Empire State Building; the Taj Mahal; the Mona Lisa; the Sunflowers
the United Nations; the Seamen’s Union
hôtels, clubs et restaurants*:
the Ritz; the Ritz Hotel; the King’s Head; the Déjà Vu
!! *Attention:  on ne met pas l’article défini devant le nom si le nom d’hôtel ou de restaurant est justement le nom de son propriétaire.
e.g.,Brown’s; Brown’s Hotel; Morel’s; Morel’s Restaurant, etc.
the Obamas; the Jacksons