grammaire anglaise : verbes à particule

grammaire anglaise : verbes à particule

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phrasal verbs
Certains verbes sont composés par deux partis: un verbe et un particule :

  • grow + up
    >> The children are growing up.

dans la langue anglaise, cela change souvent la signification du verbe :

  • take + after
    >> She takes after her mother
    = She looks like her mother, or She behaves like her mother.
  • count + on
    >> I know I can count on you
    = I know I can trust you, or I know I can believe you.

Une partie de ce genre de verbes transitifs se présentent toujours sous une même forme :
N (sujet) + V + p + N (objet)
[Note: N = noun; V = verb; p = particle]

N (Sujet) Verbe Particule N (Objet)
She
I
My father
takes
can count
comes
after
on
from
her mother
you
Madrid

Les autres dont la forme varient selon les différentes situation s’appellent en anglais” phrasal verbs,qui ont deux modèles différents :
N + V + N + p

N (Subject) Verb (N) Object Particle
She
He
We
gave
knocked
will be leaving
the money
the glass
our friends and neighbours
back
over
behind

•  N (subject) + V + p + N (object)

N (Subject) Verb Particle N (Object)
She
He
We
gave
knocked
will be leaving
back
over
behind
the money
the glass
our friends and neighbours

Quand le COD est un pronom personnel , on utilise toujours ce modèle:
N + V +N + p:

  • She gave back it
    >> She gave it back
  • He knocked over it
    >> knocked it over
  • We will be leaving behind them
    >> We will be leaving them behind

. Common verbs with their most frequent particles are:

bring: about, along, back, forward, in, off, out, round, up
buy: out, up
call: off, up
carry: off, out
cut: back, down, off, out, up
give: away, back, off
hand: back, down, in, on out, over, round
knock: down, out, over
leave: behind, out
let: down, in, off, out
pass: down, over, round
point: out
push: about, around, over
put: across, away, down, forward, off, on, out, through, together, up
read: out
set: apart, aside, back, down
shut: away, in, off, out
take: apart, away, back, down, in, on, up, over
think: over, through, up